The wording is from Circular #1 published by the US
"Copyright is a form of protection provided by the laws of the United
States (Title 17, CFR) and internationally by agreement with member nations
to the Universal Copyright Convention and the Berne Convention for the
Protection of Literary and Artistic Works. Copyright is a personal property
right, and is subject to the various laws regarding ownership and transfer
of personal property.
Copyright law protects works both published and unpublished, including
graphics and drawings, digital or otherwise. Copyright protection exists
from the moment a work is created in fixed form. It is coincident with
the process of authorship. The copyright to any created work immediately
becomes the property of the author at the moment of authorship.
A copyright need not be formally applied for, nor formally granted:
Proof of copyright ownership is enhanced by registering the copyright,
but copyright ownership is not created by registration. Copyright
protection is also enhanced by giving "notice of copyright" on the work
Notice of copyright consists of:
1. The word "Copyright" or the symbol ©, followed by
2. The date of creation, and
3. The author's name.
Only the author of a work can rightfully claim copyright. Among
other kinds of work, copyright protects literary, pictorial, graphic, and
Transfers of copyright ownership are made by contract. A work especially
commissioned, such as a piece of writing, or design, or book, or graphic
is the copyrighted property of the author. The parties may of course expressly
agree in a written instrument signed by them that the copyright is to be
transferred to a party other than the author. However, without such a contract,
a commissioned work belongs entirely to the author.
Copyright endures for the author's life, plus 50 years. In the
case of works "made for hire," where ownership is transferred by contract
to a party other than the author, copyright endures for 100 years from
creation, or for 75 years from the date of publishing, whichever is shorter."
All text, images, video and audio on these pages are
copyrighted. The copyrights are held by
Debra Dandrea as listed.
If you have any questions, please contact either the Owner
or the webmaster.